The Constitution
for
the United States of America


Foundation Director's Comments

There are so many misconceptions and falsehoods that have been foisted upon the Sovereign People of the United States of America concerning the Federal and State Constitutions that most of what we now believe about the them is totally wrong.

This is why I have taken the liberty of inserting comments that I felt would enhance the understanding of the reader.

Even though the specific powers and authority granted to the Federal Government, and to the several State Governments, by We the People, are carefully spelled out in great detail by the writers of the various Constitutions, We, the People, have been derelict in our responsibility to study the Constitutions and to know the provisions of the law in order to properly protect ourselves from the governments that we created.

As we start with our examination of the Constitution for the United States of America there are several basic concepts that we need to know. These are things that we should have learned in Junior High School and High School, but have not been learned because of the lack of proper instruction in Constitutional Law.

The biggest problem we have is the misconception that the Constitution grants us rights and powers.

There are no such things as Constitutional Rights.

It is totally the other way around. We the People granted the government the right to use a very small amount of our unalienable rights. The same unalienable rights that were given to us by our Creator. Even then, We did not grant the government sole use of those portions of our unalienable rights -- we still have very right and power to continue to use them for our own benefit. It's as if we granted someone the right to walk across our property -- it does not stop us from walking across it too. Unfortunately, the government has assumed that because they have the right to walk across our property they also have the right to trample on us. THEY DO NOT! ! !

Unalienable: The state of a thing or right which cannot be sold. Things which are not in commerce, as public roads, are in their nature unalienable. Some things are unalienable, in consequence of particular provisions in the law forbidding their sale or transfer, as pensions granted by the government. The natural rights of life and liberty are unalienable. -- Bouvier's Law Dictionary - 6th Edition - 1853

Our unalienable rights are far superior to any rights that could be granted by any man made document, or any government created by the mind of man. Our unalienable rights were given to us by our Creator.

A Constitution is nothing more or less than the binding laws set forth by the Citizens of a nation to secure their God given unalienable rights.

These binding laws are set forth in the form of mandates from the Sovereigns (We, the People) who hold supreme power, to command that the people who will staff the offices being created do and perform exactly as they have been instructed to do. There is another set of binding laws in the Constitution that are prohibitions that We, the People established, to prohibit the people who will staff the offices we created from doing or performing any act or action not permitted by the Sovereigns holding the supreme power.

Mandate: An order by a Sovereign to his subjects. -- Bouvier's Law Dictionary - 6th Edition - 1853

There can be no limitation on the power of the people of the United States. By their authority the State Constitutions were made, and by their authority the Constitution of the United States was established; -- U. S. Supreme Court - Hauenstein vs Lynham (100 US 483

How can our Constitution, or our government, grant us any rights. We already hold all of the rights and powers to begin with?

It is our unalienable rights that we used to create the Constitutions. The Constitution that we created cannot grant us any rights. It is the other way around. We granted what rights the various governments have, through the Constitutions that we created, using our Sovereign powers.

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people. – Constitution for the United States of America - 10th Amendment

Please note that even though a bill cannot become a law without an enacting clause there are no provisions in the Constitution that requires an Enacting Clause. The reason for this is very simple. There are three systems of laws mentioned in the Federal Constitution. These are, Maritime Law, Equity Law, and Common Law.

Maritime Law is concerned primarily with international affairs and has no force or effect on the Sovereign People.

Equity Law is concerned primarily with contracts and agreements and has no force or effect on the Sovereign People.

Common Law is the People's Law and is sometimes referred to as God's Law. We are, quite naturally, all subject to the Common Laws. Since the two branches of Law that the People granted the Federal Government has no power or authority over us, there is no reason for an Enacting Cluase, and so there are no provisions for an Enacting Clause.

It is ridiculous to even consider that our Founding Fathers, after risking their lives to proclaim our unalienable rights in the Declaration of Independence, and to then fight and win the War of Independence, would turn around and create a government that had any power or authority to persecute or prosecute us in any way. The various governments were established for the sole purpose of SECURING our unalienable rights, and to keep them from being trampled on by anyone -- especially our own governments.

The Founding Fathers reserved all powers and authority pertaining to the Common Law to the People. Neither the States nor the Federal Government have any right to dictate concerning Common Law.

There is no federal general common law. Congress has no power to declare substantive rules of common law applicable in a state whether they be local in their nature or 'general,' be they commercial law or a part of the law of torts. And no clause in the Constitution purports to confer such a power upon the federal courts. – Erie R.R. Co. v. Tompkins, 304 U.S. 64 (1938)

Since the Federal Government is confined to dealing with foreign nations, the various states, and the Indian nations it has no need of creating laws.

The Federal Government has the power to regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; -- Article I, Section 8, Constitution for the United States of America.

Since the statement concerning the regulation of commerce is in a single paragraph, and the words "Regulate Commerce" appear only once, then the power and ability of the Federal Governments to regulate commerce, as described by Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, must be uniform in its application to foreign Nations, the several States, and the Indian Tribes. By that, I mean that if the Federal Government cannot go into a foreign Nation and regulate their banking, establish their law enforcement, and control the business licenses and permits, then it cannot do that with either the several States, or the Indian Tribes. Any attempt to do otherwise is equivalent to an act of war wherein the Federal Government has invaded the entity in order to impose its will upon the Sovereign Citizens of the entity that has been invaded, and is therefore beyond the powers that can even be granted to the Federal Government by the People.

The foreign Nations, the several States, and the Indian Tribes are all fictional entities that have been created by the Sovereign Citizens who reside within the bounds of such entity. For the Federal Government to assume it has the power and the authority to impose its will upon these entities is a direct violation of the unalienable rights of the Sovereign Citizens of each entity.

No fictional entity, i.e., Nation, State, or Tribe, may be sovereign -- they may only use what sovereign powers as have been granted by its Sovereign Citizens.

Therefore the Federal Government cannot pass laws to regulate commerce within a Nation, State, or Tribe, it can only pass laws concerned with how the Federal Government will deal in and with the various Nations, States, and Indian Tribes. These law are, under international law, referred to as Treaties. Treaties are created by the Executive Branch of the Government. The Executive Branch holds no power to create laws, only the Legislative Branch has that power. Therefore, Enacting Clauses are not necessary.

Forty-Six of the State Constitutions require an Enacting Clause, and the State Supreme Court in the other four States has ruled that an Enacting Clause is necessary for a bill to become a law.

As further proof of the fact that the People did not grant any power to any State, or to the Federal Government, to establish any form of law enforcement please take note of the fact that none of the words, or even any variation of any of the words, police, agent, sheriff, marshal, or prison appear anywhere in the Constitution. As I said, We the People never granted any power to the Federal Government for the establishment of any type of law enforcement powers. We did not, nor would we, create a monster that had any power to persecute us. All law enforcement powers were retained by the People so we would not be persecuted by the monster we had created.

Also take note of the fact that the letters B, A, N, K appear only once, as a part of the word bankruptcy. The Federal Government has no power to establish any type of Central Bank or to regulate banking in any way.

Any and all attempts by the Federal Government, or any State Government, to grant licenses to We the People so we can work in our various chosen professions is beyond the bounds, and outside the powers that the Governments have. They are trying to grant us the right to do what we already have the right to do, just so they can make some more money. No Government has the right to dictate to the Sovereign People concerning our God granted unalienable rights to Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.

Look at what the U. S. Supreme Court had to say about our right to work without hindrance from the government.

We hold these truths to be self-evident – that is, so plain that their truth is recognized upon their mere statement – that all men are endowed – not by edicts of emperors, or decrees of parliament, or acts of congress, but – by their Creator with certain unalienable rights. – that is, rights which cannot be bartered away, or given away, or taken away, except in punishment of crime – and that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; and to secure these – not grant them, but secure them – governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. Among these unalienable rights, as proclaimed in that great document, is the right of men to pursue their happiness, by which is meant the right to pursue any lawful business or vocation, in any manner not inconsistent with the equal rights of others, which may increase their prosperity or develop their faculties, so as to give to them their highest enjoyment. The common business and callings of life, the ordinary trades and pursuits, which are innocuous in themselves, and have been followed in all communities from time immemorial, must therefore be free in this country to all alike upon the same conditions. The right to pursue them, without let or hindrance, except that which is applied to all persons of the same age, sex, and condition, is a distinguishing privilege of citizens of the United States, and an essential element of that freedom which they claim as their birthright. -- U. S. Supreme Court 111 U. S. 746
(The black printing is the original words from the Declaration of Independence. The Blue printing is the explanation set forth in the Supreme Court Decision.)

(To "LET" is to grant a charter, a contract,or a license to a person or group who has made a proposal. Every application you fill out for a license or a charter is a proposal, and the granting of the license or charter creates a contract. ALL OF WHICH IS UNCONSTITUTIONAL)

The Supreme Court of the United States is well aware of all of this, but blatantly overlooks it because it would curtail the power and the authority they have taken upon themselves.

When this country achieved its independence the prerogatives of the crown devolved upon the people of the States. And this power still remains with them, except so far as they have delegated a portion of it to the Federal government. – U. S. Supreme Court - Wheeler v. Smith, 9 How. 33

Sovereignty itself is, of course, not subject to law, for it is the author and source of law; but in our system, while sovereign powers are delegated to the agencies of government, sovereignty itself remains with the people, by whom and for whom all government exists and acts. And the law is the definition and limitation of power. – Yick Wo vs Hopkins and Woo Lee vs Hopkins (118 US S. Ct. 356)

There can be no limitation on the power of the people of the United States. By their authority the State Constitutions were made, and by their authority the Constitution of the United States was established; – Hauenstein vs Lynham (100 US 483)

I have taken the original text of the U.S. Constitution and carefully added comments concerning the meanings set forth in hopes that it will become a more vibrant document that is much easier to understand. The original text is in black and my comments are in Maroon.

Please do not accept my comments at face value – do your own independent research in order to verify what I have said.

With that -- Let's go through the Constitution for the United States of America.


Preamble to the Constitution
The Preamble to the Constitution is what is called an Enacting Clause.
No document can be a law if it does not have an Enacting Clause
that properly defines who wrote the law and what authority they had to
write the law. This is done so the reader can determine if he/she
is subject to the provisions of the law.


We the People (the Sovereign Individuals who proclaimed their inalienable rights in the Declaration of Independence and fought a war with England to establish those rights) of the United States (at the time this was written there was already an entity called the "United States" based on the Articles of Confederation. The name has reference to the separate States that have united in a Constitutional Convention to try and solve some common problems), in Order to form a more perfect Union (the States had already formed a union through the establishment of a Federation and had set up a model constitution known as the Articles of Confederation. This arrangement was not working properly as there were still many problems that needed to be solved and so the statement of forming a "more perfect union" describes exactly what they intended to do. Each of the following clauses are obligations set forth to be provided by the Union for the States, NOT for the individuals within the States. The individuals were perfectly aware of the fact that ALL OF THE POWER RESTED IN THEIR SOVEREIGN HANDS, and that neither the States the people had created, nor the union they were in the process of creating held any power other than what they jointly determined to grant, AND, even then, they were fully aware of the fact that they had the power, authority, right, and DUTY to modify or change the States government or the Union now being formed. NOWHERE in any of the writings, decisions, granting of powers, or otherwise, did the sovereign individuals do anything to diminish their own powers. They had just fought a war to guaranty that the powers really existed and were actually vested in the sovereign individual.), establish Justice, (this does not mean to establish justice within any State. The States were very protective of their own identity and the sovereign rights of the individuals living within the State boundaries. This was to establish a uniform system of justice between the States. The Union, being formed, was not given any power over any individual or the power to regulate anything within a State.) insure domestic Tranquility, (when you consider that the whole purpose of the Constitutional Convention was to establish a Union between the States in becomes very clear that this statement is pointed at settling disputes and troubles between the States and has nothing to do with anything inside the States. In today's terminology this would be referred to as a "Non-Aggression" clause. A provision that no State would invade, attack, or in any other way interrupt the ability of another State to exist and provide for the sovereign individuals living within that State.) provide for the common defense, (this clause is a "Mutual Defense Pact" that provides a treaty between the States so that if any State is invaded or attacked by an outside source they will all come to its defense.) promote the general Welfare, (this is absolutely NOT a clause that provides for feeding the homeless and the needy. This clause is pointed at providing a safe and secure place in which each sovereign individual could enjoy his, or her, "Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness" as guaranteed in the Declaration of Independence.) and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, (What good would it be to gain the blessing of Liberty for ourselves if we did not create a means to pass those same blessing on to our children, our grandchildren, and the rest of our posterity?) do ordain and establish this Constitution (the Constitution is ordained and established for the specific reasons set forth above, AND NOT FOR ANY OTHER PURPOSE. If the Founding Fathers had wanted something else in there, they would have said so. The minutes of the Constitution Convention that were kept by James Madison very clearly show that there was a lot of debate over each item that went into the Constitution. There was even debate over which word would best define the meanings, and the provisions, that they wanted to establish. Establishing the Constitution was taken very seriously by our Founding Fathers, and they did a marvelous job in performing the task set before them.) for (the use of the word "FOR" is very interesting. The word for implies that the Constitution was established "for" the benefit of those who were participating in the process of creating the Constitution. These creators were in reality the sovereign individuals who lived within the boundaries set for each of the States. Had they used the word "OF," as is commonly used in error today, it would have implied that the Constitution was established as a set of rules outlining the existence of a new entity. This was not the case, and so they used "FOR"). the United States of America. (This is where the Founding Fathers described who the Constitution was FOR. The word United does not refer to the name of the entity but implies that it is the various States who have UNITED to form the Constitution. This is evident from the fact that the signer's of the Constitution did so on behalf of their States. Of course, the word States, refers to the political entities that were created by the sovereign individuals residing within the boundaries established for the State, and the word America merely defines the geographical location where all of this is taking place.)

When viewed in its true light, the Preamble defines a treaty between the States that is designed to provide various functions and benefits for the sovereign individuals residing within a State. It does not create a new government to rule over the States, and especially not over the people.

Article I

Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted (What power and authority to create new laws, in strict compliance with, and in exact accordance with, the specific areas of responsibility granted to the Federal Government will be held by the Legislative Branch) shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. (In order to implement the treaty organization it was necessary that each State provide Representatives to govern and control the Treaty Organization. Please take careful note of the fact that the Representatives are to govern and control the Treaty Organization, NOT the States, and certainly NOT the sovereign individuals residing in a State. Nothing in this Section grants, or implies to grant, any specific power over the People it merely creates the Legislative Branch of the Government and states that the Legislature will have what legislative power will be granted later in the Constitution. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature. (The sovereign individuals of each State are to choose who will represent them. In this manner the people kept a direct handle on the functions and operations of the Treaty Organization. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. (This assured the people that whomever was elected by the people of another State was qualified and capable of functioning to the best benefits of all the people. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States (This provision clearly establishes the fact that the Representatives, although elected by the people, were to be State Representatives, just like the situation with the Constitutional Convention. This provision also provides that any taxes were to be paid by the State, not the people. Direct taxation of the people by the Union was prohibited.) which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, (This was to assure the people that the Representatives they appointed would each speak for approximately the same number of sovereign individuals. This way a Representative could not claim that he, or she, represented a greater number of people and should thereby have more say than another Representative. This provision provided that if a tax was imposed that it would be based on the population of the State. This would insure that every individual would pay an equal and fair share of the costs of operating the Union.) which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. (This simply provides for the method of determining how many Representatives the people of each State were permitted to elect.) The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. (This provision establishes the time frames for determining the number of Representatives so that each State made the determination on the same date, thus making the determination uniform and fair to all other States.) The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; (This sets the basis for the number of Representatives.) and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three. (These are merely the initial numbers that were set prior to any enumeration of the people within a State. The legislature is granted the power to create laws that will cause a census to be taken every ten years, and it further defines who and how Representatives are chosen. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies. (This further verifies that the Representatives are elected by the people to represent their State in the business of the Treaty Organization. The elected Executive Authority of the State has the power to fill unexpected vacancies, and those people will serve until such time as an election by the people is held. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; (This provision grants the Representatives from the various States the power and authority to elect the officers who will preside over the functions of the House of Representatives.) and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment. (The Power of Impeachment is reserved to the Representatives who are elected by the people. This is an important concept because the Senate Members, as will be seen hereafter, are appointed by the States, not elected by the people. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote. (This provision was included in order to give a balance to the Legislative powers and to assure that each State had an equal voice in the operations and decisions of the Union. The fact that these individuals were chosen by the State Legislature and not the people themselves insulates them in some degree from the whims and fancies of the people. Yes, I know that this provision was changed by Amendment. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; (This was done to provide for a smooth continuation of the actions, activities, and functions of the Senate.) and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies. (Just as with a Representative, a Senator may be appointed by the Executive Officer of the State until such time as an election can be held. This time it is an election by the Legislature, not the people. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. (Just as with the Representatives, this provision is to assure each State that only qualified individuals will be sent to work in the Senate. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided. (Because there are two Senators appointed by each State there will always be an even number of Senators permitted to vote. This raises the distinct possibility of tie votes and a provision had to be made to solve this problem. By making the Vice President the President of the Senate and letting him, or her, cast the deciding vote the problem was solved. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States. (This grants the Senators the power and authority to establish their own officers to conduct the affairs of the Senate. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. (This interesting provision means that both the House of Representatives, the individuals elected directly by the people, and the Senate, those who are appointed by the State Legislature, must agree in order to impeach someone. Since the person being impeached would be an elected official this provides that there is ample concurrence with the impeachment.) When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. (The entire Senate must take an Oath, or Affirmation, that they will deal in accordance with the principles set forth in the Constitution, and in fairness and honesty.) When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: (The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is the head of the highest court allowed under the Constitution, and has been nominated for his, or her, position by the President, and will have been confirmed by the Senate as the Chief Justice.) And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present. (It requires a majority vote of the Senate Members that are present. Note that it is only of the Members who are Present, not all of the Members. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision. -- Impeachment applies only to government employees.)

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of Honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law. (Impeachment carries with it only the provisions that the individual is removed from office and cannot hold any other office. If further actions are warranted, they must be pursued through the law. But, remember, every reference to "Law" in the Constitution refers to the Common Law, which is reserved to the exclusive use of the sovereign people. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

Section 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators. (The election of Senators and Representatives is a State function. The only reason the Federal Government has the power to set the time and the manner is to make the voting system uniform in all States. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day. (My how times change -- Now they go home on the first Monday in December for the holidays. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

Section 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide. (This merely gives each house the ability to supervise its own membership. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member. (This grants each house the ability to set its own internal rules. Notice that I called these rules -- they are not laws because are not subject to approval from the other house, or the President. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal. (This simply establishes the requirement to keep a record of the Actions of each house. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. (Because it requires both houses to effectively function together in order to accomplish anything, one house cannot be in recess while the other house is in session. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. (The Senators and Representatives will be paid for their services. The payment is to be from the Treasury of the United States. I feel that this was done to keep the pay schedule equal for each Senator and Representative so that one could not claim to be more important than another. If the States were left with the payment then the salaries would all be different.) They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place. (If the Senators and Representativew were not immune from Arrest then trumped up charges could be used to preclude certain Senators or Representatives from attending their meetings, thus affecting the outcome of Senate or House Actions. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time: and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office. (This precludes the possibilty of Senators or Representatives creating, or serving, in an office created by them for the specific purpose of enhancing their income. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

Section 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills. (The bills concerned with spending the People's money are to originate in the House where the Representatives are directly elected by the People. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; (This is the prime example of the proper separation of powers between the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Branches of the Government. The Legislative Branch proposes a law to the Executive Branch for approval. If approved then the Judicial Branch is responsible for enforcement.) if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law. (This Paragraph establishes the procedure for a bill to become a law -- but please note that no Enacting Clause is required. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. (All Orders, Resolutions or Votes that require the concurrence of both houses must be presented to the President for final approval before they are effective. The same procedure must be followed as is outlined for Bills. Note please, that the Paragraph referes to "Rules and Limitations". The entire Constitution is a Law that is designed to limit the actions and activities of the Officers of the Federal Government. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

Section 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, (What taxes can be collected are totally dependent on what entities the Government is permitted to deal with. As we will see later, these entities are foreign nations, which the Government has no power to tax, Indian Nations, which again are foreign nations because of the treaties entered into by the Government and therefore cannot be taxed, and the States. That is why Section 2 of Article 1 stipulates that the taxes must be apportioned between the States. There are no provisions concerning the taxing of individuals, that's why the Income Tax Amendment was created.) Duties, Imposts and Excises, (Duties, Imposts and Excises all have to do with the flow of merchandise in International Trade, because the Federal Government has no power to tax the People's Businesses. The Federal Government can only deal with Foreign Nations, Indian Nations, and the States.) to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; (The clause that requires uniformity throughout the United States is to preclude State from setting different Duties, Imposts, and Excises in order to compete for trade imports into the country. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States; (At this point in time, the Federal Government had no credit, it was brand new and struggling. It had no real income base that would instill confidence in anyone who could, or would, lend money to the Federal Government. The term "United" in this case has to refer to the uniting together of the several States and lumping their credit in order to allow the Federal Government to borrow money. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

To regulate Commerce (Here's the key statement concerning who the Federal Government has the power to deal with.) with foreign Nations, (Foreign Nations are indpendent of any direct power or authority of the Federal Government except as to what Treaties may be entered into for the benefit of both Nations, and even then the Federal Government cannot enter into a Treaty that would in any way compromise the mandates and prohibitions set forth in the Constitution. The Federal Government cannot create a Treaty that would grant it any power beyond the power and authority granted by the People. The only way the Federal Government can regulate commerce with a Foreign Nation is through Tariffs, Duties, and Excises charged on the goods entering the States from Foreign Nations.) and among the several States, (The several States are basically Foreign Nations and the Treaty between them for the regulation of mutual concerns is what this Constitution is all about. When the Constitution for the United States of America was created, the States were very protective of their own rights, powers, and independence from the Federal Government, and each other. Since they created, with the permission of the People of the various States, this Constitution, and thereby the Federal Government, they retained all of the rights not granted to the Federal Government, or reserved by the People. Neither the People, nor the States, created a Federal Government to rule over them.) and with the Indian Tribes; (The Indian Nations are basically Foreign Nations who happen to have their land contained within the boundaries of various States. The Federal Government has dealt with the Indian Nations through Treaties. Thus, it can be seen that the only entities the Federal Government has power or authority to deal with is ficticious entities that have been created by the Citizens of the several entities. There is absolutely no power granted to the Federal Government to permit it to regulate or control the Sovereign Citizens, or the Commerce of the People.)

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, (Uniform Rules of Naturalization are necessary to preclude immigrants from searching for the easiest route to gain access because there are no immigration laws, or the laws are very lax.) and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies (Here again, uniform laws will preclude debtors from running from State to State to find the easiest way to eliminate their debts.) throughout the United States; (No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

To coin Money, (Coin is just exactly what it says it is -- Coins. This provision, along with the provision in Section 10 of Article 1 that requires the States to use only gold and silver coin really establishes the basis of our monetary system. This has never been changed and so the real monetary system of the country is gold and silver coin.) regulate the Value thereof, (Certainly, if the Federal Government has the power to Coin Money, it must have the power to regulate the value of the money they coin.) and of foreign Coin, (This is not authority to fix the value of coins minted by Foreign Nations, only the power to establish an exchange rate betwen the coins minted by the Federal Government and those minted by the Foreign Nations.) and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures; (in order to effectively control the value of the coins that will be minted, and to be certain that each state is using the same standards of Weights and Measures so that trade between the States is based on a uniform scale, it is necessary that the Federal Government be given the power to fix the Standard of Weights and Measures. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities (Securities are not money. Federal Reserve Notes are debt instruments, not Securities. Securities are the Bonds that are issued by the Federal Government as evidence of the debt it has incurred through borrowing from various sources.) and current Coin of the United States; (The Federal Government used to mint gold and silver coins, in compliance with the conditions of this Constitution, but they have suspended that activity. At one time they minted a one ounce coin known as the "Double Eagle" which had a face value of $20.00. That was when the price of gold was $19.80 per ounce. Now days, counterfeiting our coins wouldn't pay anyone enough money to make the effort worth while. No specific legislative powers to control the general population of Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

To establish Post Offices and post Roads; (This grants the Legislature the power to create a national postal service and to create roads to help get the mail delivered. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries; (This grants the Legislature the power to create the Patent Office and to help Authors and Inventors protect their rights to their creations and discoveries. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; (In order to carry out the assigned tasks the Legislature is granted the power to establish inferior courts. These courts can only deal in and with those items that fall within what power and authority has been granted to the Federal Government. That means that the courts are either Maritime Courts that deal in International Affairs with the Foreign Nations, the States, and the Indian Nations, or they are Equity Courts that deal with contracts and agreements involving the functions of the Federal Government. These are NOT courts to persecute and harass the People. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations; (Here again, this falls exactly within the powers and authority granted to the Federal Government. These are functions of International Law and International Affairs and are properly within the jurisdiction of the Federal Government. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

To declare War, (One of the basic reasons for the creation of the Federal Government is the mutal defense pact contained within the Constitution. This pact quite naturally would grant the power to declare war in order to have the Federal Government meet its requirement of Providing for the Common Defense.) grant Letters of Marque (Letters of Marque are basically authorization from a Nation to commit piracy and share the booty with the Nation.) and Reprisal, (Letters of Reprisal are basically authorization from a Nation to sieze something owned, or controlled, by another nation as a reprisal and a satisfaction for some perceived wrong that has been done by the offending Nation.) and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water; (If we are going to go to war, then we will take prisoners. The power to determine how these prisoners are to be treated is granted here. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years; (In order to perform the mandated task of Providing for the Common Defense it is necessary to raise and support Armies. Since the Founding Fathers could not see a need for Armies there is no war, and since the basis for the Army was the militia, they saw no need for long term commitments to an Army. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

To provide and maintain a Navy; (Almost all trade and commerce was conducted on the high seas. Having a permanent Navy was crucial to the survival of the States and thereby the Federal Government. That's why there is no time restriction on the Navy. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces; (If the Federal Government is charged with the establishment and maintenace of a Navy and an Army, in times of war, it only follows that they must have the power to make such rules as are necessary for the regulation of the military forces. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, (This is a very interesting provision. The Militia consists of every able bodied man in each and every State. Because of the way the Militia is organized it is the Army of the People and thereby functions as an arm of the Common Law. Even though the People granted the Legislature the power to call forth the Militia, it did not grant it the exclusive right to do so. The People also have the right to call forth the Militia in order to defend themselves, to cause the Laws of the Federal and State Constitutions to be enforced, and to further secure their God given unalienable rights.) suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; (It is very interesting to note that the Militia is empowered to suppress Insurrections. The Army cannot do that because the Army is precluded from taking any action against the People. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; (This Paragraph very clearly establishes the fact that the Militia is under the control of the States, not the Federal Government. The Federal Government can establish the training criteria so that each State Militia is trained in a uniform manner with all other State Militias. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, (This is Washington D. C., the District of Columbia, and is quite properly administered by the Federal Legslature because it is not a part of any State.) and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings; (It is very understandable that the Federal Government should be entitled to exercise exclusive Legislation power over such land and buildings as they need for their efficient operation. Just tell me where the millions of acres of BLM, Forest Service, National Park Service, and other Government controlled land, fits in the restriction to Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other Needful Buildings. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.) -- And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, (It is necessary that the Legislature be granted the power and the authority to carry out its assigned tasks. Just remember, there is nothing in the foregoing that grants any power to the Legislature to control or regulate the business or other activities of the Sovereign People. The Legislature can deal only in and with Foreign Nations, the States, and Indian Nations.) and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof. (As we proceed through the Constitution you will see that no significant powers are granted, other that what has been set forth above, and certainly none that affect the Life, Liberty, or Pursuit of Happiness of the Sovereign People.)

Section 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person. (This Paragraph expired in 1808, and was a restriction on Congress against the regulation of Migration or Importation of people into a State. I feel this was a restriction on Congress to not interfere with the importation of slave labor. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it. (The Writ of Habeas Corpus is a demand that an incarcerated person be brought before a judge, or jury. In Common Law, at the time the Constitution was written, it was used to obtain the release of individuals who had been confined by the King. Many times the King would suspend the right of Writ of Habeas Corpus in order to keep the person incarcerated. Thus the Founding Fathers made it very clear in the Federal Constitution, and it has carried over into the various State Constitutions, that the right of using a Writ of Habeas Corpus cannot be suspended, unless there is rebellion, invasion, or concerns about the public safety. Abraham Lincoln suspended the right during the Civil War and the Suspreme Court restored it following the war. Because the People are the power behind all authority granted to the Federal and State Governments, and, because we did not grant the exclusive right to any of our own power and authority, any Sovereign Citizen has the right to serve a Writ of Habeas Corpus on any of our public servants in order to correct an injustice being done.)

No Bill of Attainder (First, let me state that Bills are not Laws. A Bill of Attainder is an act that permits the consequences of an unlawful act by a person to be used as a punishment for his family and descendants.) or ex post facto Law shall be passed. (An ex post facto law is one that has been passed after the fact. The Legislature cannot pass a law today and charge you with violating that law yesterday.)

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken. (Here again, any taxes that are imposed must be in proportion to the Census, or Enumeration taken every ten years. How can an individual be taxed based on a census of all the people? They can't. These are taxes that are due from a State to help Finance the operations of the Federal Treaty Organization, i.e., the Federal Government, and they are proportioned out to the States based on their population. This restriction is why the Income Tax Amendment was proposed. No specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens are granted in this Provision.)

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State. (This is simply more proof that the Federal Government has no power or authority to regulated or control the business activities of the Sovereign People. They can only deal in and with the several States in the same manner as they can deal in and with Foreign Nations and the Indian Nations. That's why all three entities are mentioned in the same Paragraph.)

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: (All of the States are to be treated equal.) nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear or pay Duties in another. (This is pretty clear -- are the fees paid by the trucking companies at each State Border unconstitutional?)

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time. (The public's money will be fully protected.)

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State. (This is a holdover from the provisions of the Articles of Confederation. After the War of Independence, King George established the International Bar Association for Attorneys and the International Banking Association for Bankers by Royal Charter. As a part of the establishment of these organization King George authorized them to grant the Title of Nobility "Esquire." The Founding Fathers fully understood that the purpose behind these two organization was to reclaim the Colonies through subterfuge and financial entanglements, so they eventually made it so that anyone who claimed a Title of Nobility lost their Citizenship and the right to hold any office of any kind - Please refer to the Missing 13th Amendment.)

Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; (Dealings with Foreign Nations are reserved to the Federal Government.) grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; (These actions are part of International Law and are reserved to the Federal Government.) coin Money; (This is to insure that the same coinage is used among all the several States.) emit Bills of Credit; (Bills of Credit are basically promissory notes written solely against the good faith and credit of the State. As such, they could tend to disrupt the stability of the State's financial position which could impact the other States and the ability of the Federal Government to meet its obligations under this Constitution.) make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; (This precludes the individual States from creating their own monetary system in defiance of the provisions of this Constitution.) pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, (The States are precluded from passing Bills of Attainder and ex post facto Laws just like the Federal Government, and for the same reasons.) or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, (Equity Courts and Equity Law was ganted to the Federal Government. The States are not allowed to compete in these matters.) or grant any Title of Nobility. (The same restriction as was placed on the Federal Government by our Founding Fathers, and for the same reasons.)

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Congress. (These functions basically deal with International Commerce, and that power and authority has been granted to the Federal Government.)

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay. (These functions basically deal with International Commerce, and that power and authority has been granted to the Federal Government.) (Absolutely no specific legislative powers to control the Sovereign Citizens were granted in any of the Provisions of Article I. Since only the Legislature can create laws it is obvious that there are no provisions within the Constitution for the United States of America that grants the Officers of the Federal Government any power or authority over the Sovereign Citizens.)

Article II

Section 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows: (This Paragraph establishes the office of the President of the United States of America and places the powers of the Executive Branch in that office.)

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. (This Paragraph establishes the Electoral College and defines the number of Electors.)

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President. (This Paragraph sets the procedure for voting for President and Vice President.)

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States. (Congress has the power to determine the day and time for choosing the Electors.)

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States. (This Paragraph establishes the requirement for holding the office of President.)

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected. (The succession to the Presidency is established.)

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them. (The President will be paid for his services.)

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States." (This is the Oath of Office for the President.)

Section 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; (The President will control the military forces of the United States. This places the control of the military under a civilian.) he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment. (The President has the power to control the various departments of the Executive Branch.)

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments. (The power to make Treaties is granted to the President. The President also has the power to appoint Ambassadors, judges and other officers for the Federal Government, generally with the approval of the Senate.)

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session. (Just like the Governors have the power to appoint people to fill Senate and Representative vacancies, the President can do the same thing to fill vacancies in the Federal Government.)

Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States. (This Paragraph establishes the powers of the President to assure that Congress is full appraised of the Status of the Federal Union, and to assure the People that the Congress is adhering to their duties.)

Section 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors. (The ability to remove various officers who have violated their office.)

Article III

Section 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office. (This Section establishes the Judicial Branch of the Federal Government and places the Judicial Power in the hands of the supreme Court, and such other inferior courts as Congress may establish.)

Section 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority; (The judicial Power is for all Cases arising under the provisions of this Constitution, the Laws that have been created by the Congress in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution, and any Treaties made by the Executive Branch.) -- to all Cases affecting (Then the cases are specifically enumerated to detail exactly which situation are under the power and control of the Judicial Branch.) Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls; (These are the International Representatives of the Federal Government and should fall under the power of the Judicial Branch for their protection.) -- to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; (This is the system of laws that have been granted to the Federal Government by We the People, and properly comes under the power of the Judicial Branch.) -- to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; (This follows naturally.) -- to Controversies between two or more States; (This also follows naturally. Since the Constitution is a Treaty between the States it is only right that the Treaty Organization, the Federal Government should have the power to resolve the issue.) -- between a State and Citizens of another State; (Even though is it a Citizen of another State it is still virtually two States in a controversy.) -- between Citizens of different States; (With Citizens of different States they have no common neutral jurisdication to turn to, therefore, the Federal Government has jurisdication.) -- between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States; (This again is a controversy that crosses State Borders and enters into different State Jurisdictions, therefore the Federal Government is granted Jurisdication.) and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects. (This falls within the purvue of International Law and is therefore the proper Jurisdication of the Federal Government.)

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make. (This further defines the powers and duties of the supreme Court.)

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed. (Any trials that may be properly brought before a court of the United States must be held in the State where the crime was committed and shall be before a Jury. Remember though, only crimes that fall within the confines of this Constitution can be prosecuted. These include only counterfeiting of the securities of the United States, Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations, and treason. All other actions belong to the sole jurisdiction of the Common Law Courts.)

Section 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court. (This very strict definition of Treason is for the purpose of NOT allowing the Federal Government to persecute those Sovereign Citizens who are attempting to obey the mandate set forth in the Declaration of Independence concerning their right to alter or amend their form of Government to best effect their Safety and Happiness.)

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted. (If anyone is guilty of Treason the punishment shall not apply to the family of the guilty person.)

Article IV

Section 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records, and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof. (Each State is to recognize the public Acts and judicial Proceedings of every other State. This is designed to eliminate a potential confusion over a number of situations.)

Section 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. (This assures each of us that we will maintain our Sovereignty no matter which State we are in.)

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime. (This prevents a criminal from fleeing from one jurisdiction to another in order to escape prosecution. Notice though that it is the Executive Authority of the State from which he fled, not the Federal Government that has the power to have him returned. The Federal Government has no authority to prosecute any Sovereign Citizen for any crimes except Counterfeiting the Securities of the United States, Treason, Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations, and even then, only within the strict definitions contained herein.)

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due. (A person cannot flee to another State to escape his contractual responsibilities.)

Section 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new States shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress. (This Paragraph establishes the restrictions on new States coming into the Union.)

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State. (The Federal Congress has total control over all Territories, including the oversight and approval of all Laws, Rules, and Regulations. As you will note when you examine the documents concerning the Missing 13th Amendment, Congress approved the publication of the Constitution for the United States of America containing the Missing 13th Amendment until at least 1876 when the Wyoming Territorial Laws were published. Congress was not mistaken for over 50 years about the validity of the true 13th Amendment.)

Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence. (This Constitution establishes a Republica Form of Government for the Federal Union and mandates that every State will also have a Republican Form of Government.)

Article V

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate. (The Paragraph establishes the provisions for Amending This Constitution. As you can see, there are no provisions set forth by which the States are to notify anyone concerning their ratification of the proposed Amendment, thus, the State can choose any method they want, or choose to not say anything at all. The notion that there has to be notification is not a part of this Constitution.).

Article VI

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation. (This is only logical.)

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; (This provision is not as comprehensive as it sounds. The Federal Government can only pass laws pertaining to the powers that We the People have granted. Treaties, provided they do not violate God's Laws and our Common Laws will of necessity be the law of the land so that the judicial system established under the provisions of this Constitution has the ability to deal with such Treaties.) and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwith-standing. (This is a not a problem because the Constitution does not grant any power or authority over the Sovereign People, and, if anyone were to try to gain control of the People through a perverted Treaty, We the People still have our unalienable rights to immediately step forward and quash the Treaty.)

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States. (The Oath required of all officers of the Federal and State Governments is a binding contract with the Sovereign People of the United States. The Oath mandates that the officer obey, protect, and defend the Federal and State Constitutions so that our individual Sovereignty is not compromised. If any of the officers fail to comply with the terms and conditions of their Oath, We the People can take immediate action to cure any problems created. Remember, we did not grant the exclusive use of our power -- we retained the right to use any and all of our powers any time we find it necessary in order to properly protect ourselves.)

Article VII

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same. (The ratification by nine states does not meet the ratification requirements of an Amendment, but this is not an Amendment. Apparently the Founding Fathers determined that even with only nine States.)

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth

In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

George Washington--President and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire: John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts: Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King

Connecticut: William Samuel Johnson, Roger Sherman

New York: Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey: William Livingston, David Brearly, William Paterson, Jonathan Dayton

Pennsylvania: Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, George Clymer, Thomas FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouverneur Morris

Delaware: George Read, Gunning Bedford, Jr., John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jacob Broom

Maryland: James McHenry, Daniel of Saint Thomas Jenifer, Daniel Carroll

Virginia: John Blair, James Madison, Jr.

North Carolina: William Blount, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Hugh Williamson

South Carolina: John Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler

Georgia: William Few, Abraham Baldwin

Source: The Pennsylvania Packet, September 19, 1787


Bill of Rights

Most people are not aware of the fact that there is a Preamble to the Bill of Rights. The Preamble indicates that several of the States wanted more stringent controls on the Federal Government. These Stringent Controls are what is now known as the Bill of Rights. It is not designed to grant any rights to the People, only to restrict the Federal Government from invading, or even infringing on, our Sovereign Unalienable Rights.

As the Preamble says, its Articles are in addition to what is already stated in the Constitution, as well as Amendments to other Provisions in the Constitution.

The Preamble to The Bill of Rights

Congress of the United States begun and held at the City of New-York, on Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine. (This is the Enacting Clause required for the Bill of Rights to be a valid Law.)

THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution. (This Paragraph very clearly states that these Amendments were for the sole purpose of restricting the Federal Government's actions. It also states that the provisions are "declaratory," which is equivalent to a mandate from the Sovereign Citizens, and "restrictive," which is virtually the same as a prohibition by the Sovereign Citizens against exceeding the power an authority granted.)

RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz. (This Paragraph declares that the proposed Amendment was properly passed by Congress and sent to the States as required for an Amendment to the Constitution.)

ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution. (This Paragraph merely states that the process followed was in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.)

Amendment I
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
(These are NOT rights that are being conferred upon the Sovereign People. These are rights that already belong to us as a basic part of our unalienable rights granted by our Creator. This Paragraph is for the sole purpose of restricting the ability of the Federal Government from persecuting the Sovereign Citizens.)

Amendment II
A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.
(The Militia consists of all of the able bodied men in a community. This Amendments declares that the militia is for the "security of a free State," not the Federal Government. The Federal Congress has no right to infringe upon the Sovereignty of the People by passing law that infringe on our ability to keep and bear arms. This has nothing to do with the Federal Government, or any of its powers. The Militia belongs to the People, consists of the People, and, other than when there is a specific need for the Militia to be called up by the Federal Government, the Militia is beyond the powers of the Federal Government.)

Amendment III
No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
(At the time of the War of Independence, the British freely quartered its soldiers in the homes of the Colonists. This provision was designed to prohibit that practice.)

Amendment IV
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
(As with the other Amendments in the Bill of Rights, this provision is critical to prevent invasion, or infringment, of the Sovereign rights of the People. There are no provisions in the Federal Constitution that permits the Federal Government to take any action against any Sovereign Citizen, therefore, this provision is actually a provision pointed at the Common Law Courts of the People. Since the Common Law Courts have the sole Jurisdication over the Sovereign People and their unablienable rights the Federal Government is totally restricted from serving any warrants or writs concerning the Sovereign Citizens.)

Amendment V
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
(Since the Common Law Courts have the sole Jurisdication over the Sovereign People and their unablienable rights the Federal Government is totally restricted from performing any actions against the Sovereign Citizens. It should be noted that when the Constitution was written the grand jury was an investigative body that was not controlled by the Prosecutor. The grand jury was given the names of the witnesses and went about their business until a decision was reached. Also, the grand jury kept no records and simply provided a decision to the Common Law Court.)

Amendment VI
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
(Since the Common Law Courts have the sole Jurisdication over the Sovereign People and their unablienable rights the Federal Government is totally restricted from performing any actions against the Sovereign Citizens. This Amendment is concerned with the operation of the Common Law Courts.)

Amendment VII
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
(This is obviously concerned with the Common Law Courts. The Sovereign Citizens retained all rights to the Common Law, and made the Common Law Courts superior to all other courts in the land. This means that the People, through their Common Law Courts have the ability, power, authority and right to use their Common Law Courts to overturn any decision by any other court, or to declare any law created by the Federal or State Congress unconstitutional.)

Amendment VIII
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
(More provisions concerning the Common Law Courts. Once again, the Federal Government was not granted any power or authority over the Sovereign Citizens by the Constitution.)

Amendment IX
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
(We the People are making sure that we retain the right to exercise any and all of our unalienable rights.)

Amendment X
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
(We the People are making sure that we retain the right to exercise any and all of our unalienable rights.)

End of the Bill of Rights


Other Amendments

Amendment XI
Passed by Congress March 4, 1794 - Ratified February 7, 1795.

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state. (This is a restriction on the judicial power of the United States. The United States does not have the power to intervene in any suit in law (which means Common Law) or equity (which is a contract dispute) that has been commenced or prosecuted against one of the several States by the Citizens of another State, or subjects of any foreign Nation. This is a restriction that bars the Federal Government from any actions in Common Law.)

The eleventh amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Third Congress, on the 4th of March 1794; and was declared in a message from the President to Congress, dated the 8th of January, 1798, to have been ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the States. The dates of ratification were: New York, March 27, 1794; Rhode Island, March 31, 1794; Connecticut, May 8, 1794; New Hampshire, June 16, 1794; Massachusetts, June 26, 1794; Vermont, between October 9, 1794 and November 9, 1794; Virginia, November 18, 1794; Georgia, November 29, 1794; Kentucky, December 7, 1794; Maryland, December 26, 1794; Delaware, January 23, 1795; North Carolina, February 7, 1795.

Ratification was completed on February 7, 1795.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by South Carolina on December 4, 1797. New Jersey and Pennsylvania did not take action on the amendment.


Amendment XII
Passed by Congress December 9, 1803 - Ratified July 27, 1804.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; - The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice.

And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, [before the fourth day of March next following,] then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such numbers be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two- thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. (This modified the provisions in the Constitution for the Electoral College.)

The twelfth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Eighth Congress, on the 9th of December, 1803, in lieu of the original third paragraph of the first section of the second article; and was declared in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 25th of September, 1804, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 13 of the 17 States. The dates of ratification were: North Carolina, December 21, 1803; Maryland, December 24, 1803; Kentucky, December 27, 1803; Ohio, December 30, 1803; Pennsylvania, January 5, 1804; Vermont, January 30, 1804; Virginia, February 3, 1804; New York, February 10, 1804; New Jersey, February 22, 1804; Rhode Island, March 12, 1804; South Carolina, May 15, 1804; Georgia, May 19, 1804; New Hampshire, June 15, 1804.

Ratification was completed on June 15, 1804.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Tennessee, July 27, 1804.

The amendment was rejected by Delaware, January 18, 1804; Massachusetts, February 3, 1804; Connecticut, at its session begun May 10, 1804.


Amendment XIII
Passed by Congress May 1, 1810 - Ratified December 9, 1812.

(Considerable controversy surrounds this Amendment - The official position of the Federal Union is that it was never ratified - but - in the past few months there is more than ample evidence that the Amendment was properly ratified on December 9, 1812, and if not then, certainly no later than March 10, 1819. For over 50 years this Amendment was included in the publications of the Constitution for the united States. Many States, Territories, and even the Federal union, printed copies of the Constitution containing this Amendment. It was unlawfully removed by persons unknown for their own personal greed and aggrandizement. Even though it was properly ratified, it appears that it was never enforced. Thus, all laws, treaties, appointments of officers to the union, and other acts and actions of the Federal union since 1812 are not valid and are therefore null and void. For a complete description of the chronology of events and images of the various documents that prove conclusively the validity of the 13th Amendment go to www.amendment-13.org It is very interesting to note that only the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th articles of amendment had numbers assigned to them at the time of ratification. The reason behind the numbering was to insure that the removal of the validly existing 13th Amendment was fully hidden by the proposed, and wrongfully numbered new 13th Amendment. To have just numbered the new proposed Amendment as the 13th and then not number any others would have called attention to the facts surrounding the situation. Whoever was behind the removal of the valid 13th Amendment had to number the next few Amendments so as to further hide their unlawful actions.)

If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive, or retain any title of nobility or honour, or shall without the consent of Congress, accept and retain any present, pension, office, or emolument of any kind whatever, from any emperor, king, prince, or foreign power, such person shall cease to be a citizen of the united States, and shall be incapable of holding any office of trust or profit under them, or either of them." (This Amendment was for the specific purpose of banning participate in government operations by attorneys and bankers who claimed the Title of Nobility of "Esquire." These people had joined the International Bar Association or the International Bankers Association and owed their allegiance to the King of England. Banning Titles of Nobility began in the Articles of Confederation, continued in two places in the Constitution, and finally was added as an Amendment to the Constitution -- an Amendment that had teeth in it to punish those persons who chose to ignore the Constitutional Law.)

The thirteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Eleventh Congress, Second Session, on the 1st of May, 1810. The dates of ratification were: December 25, 1810: Maryland ratifies the 13th Amendment, the 1st state. January 31, 1811: Kentucky ratifies the 13th Amendment, the 2nd state. January 31, 1811: Ohio unanimously ratifies the 13th Amendment, the 3rd state. February 2, 1811: Delaware ratifies the 13th Amendment, the 4th state. February 6, 1811 Pennsylvania ratifies the 13th Amendment, the 5th state. February 13,1811: New Jersey ratifies the 13th Amendment, the 6th state. October 24, 1811: Vermont ratifies the 13th Amendment, the 7th state. November 21, 1811: Tennessee ratifies the 13th Amendment, the 8th state. November 22, 1811: Georgia ratifies the 13th Amendment, the 9th state. December 23, 1811: North Carolina ratifies the 13th Amendment, the 10th state. February 27, 1812: Massachusetts ratifies the 13th Amendment, the 11th state. March 12, 1812: New York fails ratification of the 13th Amendment. April 30, 1812: Louisiana becomes the 18th state in the Union, but is not consulted on the pending constitutional amendment, although Louisiana recognized the validity of the 13th Amendment by publishing the Constitution in its Law Books in 1825 and again in 1855. June 12, 1812: The War of 1812 begins. June 12, 1812: Governor Plumer of New Hampshire send letter to New Hampshire Legislature accompanied by letters from the Chief Executive Officers of Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and Vermont indicating ratification of the 13th Amendment by their State. Virginia thus is shown to be the 12th State to ratify the Amendment. Even if the New Hampshire information is wrong, Virginia printed a copy of the Constitution showing the 13th Amendment in its Law books in 1819. This date is the date, if no earlier date can be confirmed. December 9, 1812: New Hampshire ratifies the 13th Amendment, the 13th of the 13 states required.

Ratification was completed on December 9, 1812.


Amendment XIV
Passed by Congress January 31, 1865 - Ratified December 6, 1865.

(This Amendment, although truly the 14th is currently shown as the 13th because of the unlawful removal of the valid 13th Amendment. In view of the removal of the 13th Amendment this Amendment may have been proposed by an unconstitutional Congress. Congress may have had members who claimed Titles of Nobility and were therefore not Citizens and had no right to hold the office of Representative or Senator.)

Section 1.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
(This Amendment was passed following the Civil War and was the first Amendment to have a number assigned to it. 13, of course, to hide the fact that the true 13th had been unlawfully removed so attorneys and bankers who were bent on the destruction of this country could continue with their plan.)

The fourteenth (shown as the thirteenth) amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Thirty-eighth Congress, on the 31st day of January, 1865, and was declared, in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 18th of December, 1865, to have been ratified by the legislatures of twenty-seven of the thirty-six States. The dates of ratification were: Illinois, February 1, 1865; Rhode Island, February 2, 1865; Michigan, February 2, 1865; Maryland, February 3, 1865; New York, February 3, 1865; Pennsylvania, February 3, 1865; West Virginia, February 3, 1865; Missouri, February 6, 1865; Maine, February 7, 1865; Kansas, February 7, 1865; Massachusetts, February 7, 1865; Virginia, February 9, 1865; Ohio, February 10, 1865; Indiana, February 13, 1865; Nevada, February 16, 1865; Louisiana, February 17, 1865; Minnesota, February 23, 1865; Wisconsin, February 24, 1865; Vermont, March 9, 1865; Tennessee, April 7, 1865; Arkansas, April 14, 1865; Connecticut, May 4, 1865; New Hampshire, July 1, 1865; South Carolina, November 13, 1865; Alabama, December 2, 1865; North Carolina, December 4, 1865; Georgia, December 6, 1865.

Ratification was completed on December 6, 1865.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Oregon, December 8, 1865; California, December 19, 1865; Florida, December 28, 1865 (Florida again ratified on June 9, 1868, upon its adoption of a new constitution); Iowa, January 15, 1866; New Jersey, January 23, 1866 (after having rejected the amendment on March 16, 1865); Texas, February 18, 1870; Delaware, February 12, 1901 (after having rejected the amendment on February 8, 1865); Kentucky, March 18, 1976 (after having rejected it on February 24, 1865).

The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by Mississippi, December 4, 1865.


AMENDMENT XV
Passed by Congress June 13, 1866 - Ratified July 9, 1868.

(This Amendment, although truly the 15th is currently shown as the 14th because of the unlawful removal of the valid 13th Amendment. In view of the removal of the 13th Amendment this Amendment may have been proposed by an unconstitutional Congress. Congress may have had members who claimed Titles of Nobility and were therefore not Citizens and had no right to hold the office of Representative or Senator. We do know that this Amendment was never validly ratified. In order get the ratification vote from 11 Southern States the valid Representatives and Senators for these States were removed by force and replaced with what are referred to as "Rump" Representatives. These Representatives were used for the specific purpose of passing this Amendment and so the ratification was not done by properly elected representatives of the People of those States. Besides, the only people the union had jurisdiction over were the people living in the National Capital Area, Washington D.C. For verification of the above statements just check the Congressional Record for June 13, 1967 H7161)

Section 1.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2.
Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of Electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section 3.
No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or Elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Section 4.
The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5.
The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
(This is a very interesting Amendment. It purports to establish the equality of all Citizens, but the Declaration of Independence did that. God did that when he gave us our unalienable rights. We certainly do not need the Federal Government trying to do what it has no power or authority to do. Also, because of the provisions of Section 4, there were 11 Southern States that refused to ratify the Amendment. It is a matter of record that the U. S. Military then arrested the legitimate legislators from those States and established what are now called "rump legislators" who voted in favor of the Amendment. This Amendment is of vital importance to those who would destroy our unalienable rights because it takes away our State Citizenship and grants a Federal Citizenship. This is impossible. No Treaty organization (which the United States Government is) can have Citizens. There are no Citizens of NATO, the UN, or any other Treaty organization, including the United States of America. By making us Citizens of the Treaty organization we would be subject to the laws, codes, rules, regulations, and other unconstitutional garbage that the Federal Government wanted to foist upon us. As you will note in Section 5, they even tried to grant themselves the power to create laws to enforce their unconstitutional actions. This is all hogwash, meaningless, worthless, and totally unenforceable -- unless they can convince the general public that the Common Law does not exist. Only then do they have the power to continue with their theft of our unalienable rights.)

The fifteenth (shown as the fourteenth) amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Thirty-ninth Congress, on the 13th of June, 1866. It was declared, in a certificate of the Secretary of State dated July 28, 1868 to have been ratified by the legislatures of 28 of the 37 States. The dates of ratification were: Connecticut, June 25, 1866; New Hampshire, July 6, 1866; Tennessee, July 19, 1866; New Jersey, September 11, 1866 (subsequently the legislature rescinded its ratification, and on March 24, 1868, readopted its resolution of rescission over the Governor's veto, and on Nov. 12, 1980, expressed support for the amendment); Oregon, September 19, 1866 (and rescinded its ratification on October 15, 1868); Vermont, October 30, 1866; Ohio, January 4, 1867 (and rescinded its ratification on January 15, 1868); New York, January 10, 1867; Kansas, January 11, 1867; Illinois, January 15, 1867; West Virginia, January 16, 1867; Michigan, January 16, 1867; Minnesota, January 16, 1867; Maine, January 19, 1867; Nevada, January 22, 1867; Indiana, January 23, 1867; Missouri, January 25, 1867; Rhode Island, February 7, 1867; Wisconsin, February 7, 1867; Pennsylvania, February 12, 1867; Massachusetts, March 20, 1867; Nebraska, June 15, 1867; Iowa, March 16, 1868; Arkansas, April 6, 1868; Florida, June 9, 1868; North Carolina, July 4, 1868 (after having rejected it on December 14, 1866); Louisiana, July 9, 1868 (after having rejected it on February 6, 1867); South Carolina, July 9, 1868 (after having rejected it on December 20, 1866).

Ratification was completed on July 9, 1868.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Alabama, July 13, 1868; Georgia, July 21, 1868 (after having rejected it on November 9, 1866); Virginia, October 8, 1869 (after having rejected it on January 9, 1867); Mississippi, January 17, 1870; Texas, February 18, 1870 (after having rejected it on October 27, 1866); Delaware, February 12, 1901 (after having rejected it on February 8, 1867); Maryland, April 4, 1959 (after having rejected it on March 23, 1867); California, May 6, 1959; Kentucky, March 18, 1976 (after having rejected it on January 8, 1867).


AMENDMENT XVI
Passed by Congress February 26, 1869 - Ratified February 3, 1870.

This Amendment, although truly the 16th is currently shown as the 15th because of the unlawful removal of the valid 13th Amendment. In view of the removal of the 13th Amendment this Amendment may have been proposed by an unconstitutional Congress. Congress may have had members who claimed Titles of Nobility and were therefore not Citizens and had no right to hold the office of Representative or Senator.

Section 1.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Section 2.
The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
(This Amendment looks great on the surface, but here again it a cleverly contrived Amendment to lull the People to sleep in order to place them deeper in bondage. Under the terms of the Constitution each Citizen is entitled to vote. Why do we need this Amendment. The people who would subvert our government claim it was to give the minorities the right to vote -- but -- once the slaves were emancipated they had the ability to claim their Citizenship within a State and to vote in the elections. I am aware that until the mid 1950's there were various road blocks established to prohibit minorities from voting, but that is a problem that should have been handled quickly and effectively through the Common Law -- had we but understood the Common Law. Again, in Section 2, we note that Congress is trying to grant itself the ability to enlarge its powers beyond what the People granted.

The sixteenth (shown as the fifteenth) amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Fortieth Congress, on the 26th of February, 1869, and was declared, in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated March 30, 1870, to have been ratified by the legislatures of twenty-nine of the thirty-seven States. The dates of ratification were: Nevada, March 1, 1869; West Virginia, March 3, 1869; Illinois, March 5, 1869; Louisiana, March 5, 1869; North Carolina, March 5, 1869; Michigan, March 8, 1869; Wisconsin, March 9, 1869; Maine, March 11, 1869; Massachusetts, March 12, 1869; Arkansas, March 15, 1869; South Carolina, March 15, 1869; Pennsylvania, March 25, 1869; New York, April 14, 1869 (and the legislature of the same State passed a resolution January 5, 1870, to withdraw its consent to it, which action it rescinded on March 30, 1970); Indiana, May 14, 1869; Connecticut, May 19, 1869; Florida, June 14, 1869; New Hampshire, July 1, 1869; Virginia, October 8, 1869; Vermont, October 20, 1869; Missouri, January 7, 1870; Minnesota, January 13, 1870; Mississippi, January 17, 1870; Rhode Island, January 18, 1870; Kansas, January 19, 1870; Ohio, January 27, 1870 (after having rejected it on April 30, 1869); Georgia, February 2, 1870; Iowa, February 3, 1870.

Ratification was completed on February 3, 1870, unless the withdrawal of ratification by New York was effective; in which event ratification was completed on February 17, 1870, when Nebraska ratified.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Texas, February 18, 1870; New Jersey, February 15, 1871 (after having rejected it on February 7, 1870); Delaware, February 12, 1901 (after having rejected it on March 18, 1869); Oregon, February 24, 1959; California, April 3, 1962 (after having rejected it on January 28, 1870); Kentucky, March 18, 1976 (after having rejected it on March 12, 1869).

The amendment was approved by the Governor of Maryland, May 7, 1973; Maryland having previously rejected it on February 26, 1870.

The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by Tennessee, November 16, 1869.


AMENDMENT XVII
Passed by Congress July 2, 1909 - Ratified February 3, 1913.

This Amendment, although truly the 17th is currently shown as the 16th because of the unlawful removal of the valid 13th Amendment. In view of the removal of the 13th Amendment this Amendment may have been proposed by an unconstitutional Congress. Congress may have had members who claimed Titles of Nobility and were therefore not Citizens and had no right to hold the office of Representative or Senator. In addition, a concerted effort has been made to verify the validity of the ratification process for this Amendment. ABSOLUTE PROOF exists and shows that the Amendment was never ratified properly by a single State – NOT ONE. Thirty-three States modified the language before ratifying the Amendment. That means that each State ratified a different Amendment and not one of them ratified the Amendment sent to them by Congress.

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever sources derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration. (This is a bogus attempt to enslave the people. My uncle, J. Reuben Clark, Jr., was the Solicitor for the State Department in 1912. He told me that when he wrote his legal opinion for Philander Knox that he tried very diligently to convey the fact that the Amendment was not properly ratified, but he also knew that what he said would be ignored. His hope was that in writing the opinion the way he did it would leave his letter available to later generation who could then use it as a tool to overturn the zealous activities of the others around him. The following table is based on his findings for his legal opinion.)

The seventeenth (shown as the sixteenth) amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Sixty-first Congress on the 12th of July, 1909, and was declared, in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 25th of February, 1913, to have been ratified by 36 of the 48 States.

The dates of ratification were:
Alabama, August 10, 1909, Alabama changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Therefore Alabama did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Kentucky, February 8, 1910. Kentucky did not ratify the Amendment. The wording was changed so that Kentucky ratified a different Amendment than what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Also the Governor did not sign, as required by the State Constitution;
South Carolina, February 19, 1910. South Carolina changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Therefore South Carolina did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Illinois, March 1, 1910. Illinois changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Therefore Illinois did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Mississippi, March 7, 1910. Mississippi changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Therefore Mississippi did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Oklahoma, March 10, 1910. Oklahoma changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Therefore Oklahoma did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Maryland, April 8, 1910. Maryland's governor did not sign the Amendment as required by the State Constitution. Therefore Maryland did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Georgia, August 3, 1910. Georgia changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Georgia did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Texas, August 16, 1910. Texas changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Texas did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Ohio, January 19, 1911. Ohio suffered various procedural errors and in the process changed the capitalization of the proposed Amendment so it was not the same as the Amendment that was submitted for ratification. Ohio did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Idaho, January 20, 1911. Idaho changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Idaho did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Oregon, January 23, 1911. Did not ratify the Amendment and reported that it did not. Counting Oregon as one of the States that did ratify the Amendment, when it did not, is fraud on the American Public;
Washington, January 26, 1911. Washington changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Washington did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Montana, January 30, 1911. Montana suffered various procedural errors and in the process changed the capitalization and punctuation of the proposed Amendment so it was not the same as the Amendment that was submitted for ratification. Montana did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Indiana, January 30, 1911. Indiana changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Indiana did not properly ratify the Amendment;
California, January 31, 1911. California changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. California did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Nevada, January 31, 1911. Incomplete evidence of ratification, however, the Amendment being considered has both the Capitalization and the Punctuation changed. Even if it did ratify, it was the wrong Amendment. Nevada did not properly ratify the Amendment.
South Dakota, February 3, 1911. South Dakota changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. South Dakota did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Nebraska, February 9, 1911. Nebraska suffered various procedural errors and in the process changed the capitalization of the proposed Amendment so it was not the same as the Amendment that was submitted for ratification. Nebraska did not properly ratify the Amendment;
North Carolina, February 11, 1911. North Carolina changed the capitalization and punctuation of the proposed Amendment so it was not the same as the Amendment that was submitted for ratification. North Carolina did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Colorado, February 15, 1911. Colorado changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Colorado did not properly ratify the Amendment;
North Dakota, February 17, 1911. North Dakota changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. North Dakota did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Kansas, February 18, 1911. Kansas suffered various procedural errors and in the process changed the capitalization of the proposed Amendment so it was not the same as the Amendment that was submitted for ratification. Kansas did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Michigan, February 23, 1911. Michigan changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Michigan did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Iowa, February 24, 1911. Iowa suffered various procedural errors and in the process changed the capitalization of the proposed Amendment so it was not the same as the Amendment that was submitted for ratification. Iowa did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Missouri, March 16, 1911. Missouri changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Missouri did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Maine, March 31, 1911. Maine changed both the Capitalization and the Punctuation of the proposed Amendment. Maine did not properly ratify the Amendment.
Tennessee, April 7, 1911. Tennessee changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Tennessee did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Arkansas, April 22, 1911 After having rejected it earlier, Arkansas changed the wording and ratified the modified version of the Amendment. Arkansas ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted or ratification by the Congress. Arkansas did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Wisconsin, May 26, 1911. Wisconsin changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Wisconsin did not properly ratify the Amendment;
New York, July 12, 1911. New York suffered various procedural errors and in the process changed both the capitalization and the punctuation of the proposed Amendment so it was not the same as the Amendment that was submitted for ratification. New York did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Arizona, April 6, 1912. Arizona changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Arizona did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Minnesota, June 11, 1912. Minnesota had procedural errors in the ratification process and the State Governor failed to sign the bill in violation of the State Constitution. Minnesota did not properly ratify the Amendment;
Louisiana, June 28, 1912. Louisiana changed the wording and so it ratified a different Amendment from what was submitted for ratification by the Congress. Louisiana did not properly ratify the Amendment;
West Virginia, January 31, 1913. West Virginia suffered various procedural errors and in the process changed the capitalization of the proposed Amendment so it was not the same as the Amendment that was submitted for ratification. West Virginia did not properly ratify the Amendment;
New Mexico, February 3, 1913. New Mexico suffered various procedural errors and in the process of ratifying the proposed Amendment so it was not the same as the Amendment that was submitted for ratification. New Mexico did not properly ratify the Amendment;

The official position of the Federal Government is that Ratification was completed on February 3, 1913, but as can be seen from the above table of information, NOT ONE STATE REALLY, SOLIDLY, APPROVED THE AMENDMENT. Uncle Rueben's opinion actually showed that NOT ONE STATE REALLY, SOLIDLY, APPROVED THE AMENDMENT. In spite of this Mr. Knox announced to the world that the Amendment had been properly ratified.

The Federal Government claims that the amendment was subsequently ratified by Massachusetts and New Hampshire, but as you can see that is not true:

Massachusetts, March 4, 1913. Massachusetts suffered various procedural errors and in the process changed both the capitalization and the punctuation of the proposed Amendment so it was not the same as the Amendment that was submitted for ratification. Massachusetts did not properly ratify the Amendment;
New Hampshire, March 7, 1913 The Amendment was rejected it on March 2, 1911, but the official line of the Federal Union is that New Hampshire reconsidered the Amendment, and subsequently passed. There is no evidence to support this contention.

The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Utah.


AMENDMENT XVIII
Passed by Congress May 13, 1912 - Ratified April 8, 1913.

This Amendment, although truly the 18th is currently shown as the 17th because of the unlawful removal of the valid 13th Amendment. In view of the removal of the 13th Amendment this Amendment may have been proposed by an unconstitutional Congress. Congress may have had members who claimed Titles of Nobility and were therefore not Citizens and had no right to hold the office of Representative or Senator.

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the Legislature of any State may empower the Executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the Legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. (This Amendment removed the election of Senators from the State Legislature and gave it to the People. While this may sound good, it really took away a lot of the equality that had been established between the States.)

The seventeenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Sixty-second Congress on the 13th of May, 1912, and was declared, in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 31st of May, 1913, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 48 States. The dates of ratification were: Massachusetts, May 22, 1912; Arizona, June 3, 1912; Minnesota, June 10, 1912; New York, January 15, 1913; Kansas, January 17, 1913; Oregon, January 23, 1913; North Carolina, January 25, 1913; California, January 28, 1913; Michigan, January 28, 1913; Iowa, January 30, 1913; Montana, January 30, 1913; Idaho, January 31, 1913; West Virginia, February 4, 1913; Colorado, February 5, 1913; Nevada, February 6, 1913; Texas, February 7, 1913; Washington, February 7, 1913; Wyoming, February 8, 1913; Arkansas, February 11, 1913; Maine, February 11, 1913; Illinois, February 13, 1913; North Dakota, February 14, 1913; Wisconsin, February 18, 1913; Indiana, February 19, 1913; New Hampshire, February 19, 1913; Vermont, February 19, 1913; South Dakota, February 19, 1913; Oklahoma, February 24, 1913; Ohio, February 25, 1913; Missouri, March 7, 1913; New Mexico, March 13, 1913; Nebraska, March 14, 1913; New Jersey, March 17, 1913; Tennessee, April 1, 1913; Pennsylvania, April 2, 1913; Connecticut, April 8, 1913.

Ratification was completed on April 8, 1913.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Louisiana, June 11, 1914.

The amendment was rejected by Utah (and not subsequently ratified) on February 26, 1913.


AMENDMENT XIX
Passed by Congress December 18, 1917 - Ratified January 16, 1919.
(Repealed by Amendment 22 (21))

This Amendment, although truly the 19th is currently shown as the 18th because of the unlawful removal of the valid 13th Amendment. In view of the removal of the 13th Amendment this Amendment may have been proposed by an unconstitutional Congress. Congress may have had members who claimed Titles of Nobility and were therefore not Citizens and had no right to hold the office of Representative or Senator.

After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the Legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

The eighteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Sixty-fifth Congress, on the 18th of December, 1917, and was declared, in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 29th of January, 1919, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 48 States. The dates of ratification were: Mississippi, January 8, 1918; Virginia, January 11, 1918; Kentucky, January 14, 1918; North Dakota, January 25, 1918; South Carolina, January 29, 1918; Maryland, February 13, 1918; Montana, February 19, 1918; Texas, March 4, 1918; Delaware, March 18, 1918; South Dakota, March 20, 1918; Massachusetts, April 2, 1918; Arizona, May 24, 1918; Georgia, June 26, 1918; Louisiana, August 3, 1918; Florida, December 3, 1918; Michigan, January 2, 1919; Ohio, January 7, 1919; Oklahoma, January 7, 1919; Idaho, January 8, 1919; Maine, January 8, 1919; West Virginia, January 9, 1919; California, January 13, 1919; Tennessee, January 13, 1919; Washington, January 13, 1919; Arkansas, January 14, 1919; Kansas, January 14, 1919; Alabama, January 15, 1919; Colorado, January 15, 1919; Iowa, January 15, 1919; New Hampshire, January 15, 1919; Oregon, January 15, 1919; Nebraska, January 16, 1919; North Carolina, January 16, 1919; Utah, January 16, 1919; Missouri, January 16, 1919; Wyoming, January 16, 1919.

Ratification was completed on January 16, 1919. See Dillon v. Gloss, 256 U.S. 368, 376 (1921).

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Minnesota on January 17, 1919; Wisconsin, January 17, 1919; New Mexico, January 20, 1919; Nevada, January 21, 1919; New York, January 29, 1919; Vermont, January 29, 1919; Pennsylvania, February 25, 1919; Connecticut, May 6, 1919; and New Jersey, March 9, 1922.

The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by Rhode Island.


AMENDMENT XX
Passed by Congress June 4, 1919 - Ratified August 18, 1920.

This Amendment, although truly the 20th is currently shown as the 19th because of the unlawful removal of the valid 13th Amendment. In view of the removal of the 13th Amendment this Amendment may have been proposed by an unconstitutional Congress. Congress may have had members who claimed Titles of Nobility and were therefore not Citizens and had no right to hold the office of Representative or Senator.

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. (This Amendment granted the right to vote to women. But, it also continued the grab for power by the Legislature authorizing itself to create laws.)

The nineteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Sixty-sixth Congress, on the 4th of June, 1919, and was declared, in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 26th of August, 1920, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 48 States. The dates of ratification were: Illinois, June 10, 1919 (and that State readopted its resolution of ratification June 17, 1919); Michigan, June 10, 1919; Wisconsin, June 10, 1919; Kansas, June 16, 1919; New York, June 16, 1919; Ohio, June 16, 1919; Pennsylvania, June 24, 1919; Massachusetts, June 25, 1919; Texas, June 28, 1919; Iowa, July 2, 1919; Missouri, July 3, 1919; Arkansas, July 28, 1919; Montana, August 2, 1919; Nebraska, August 2, 1919; Minnesota, September 8, 1919; New Hampshire, September 10, 1919; Utah, October 2, 1919; California, November 1, 1919; Maine, November 5, 1919; North Dakota, December 1, 1919; South Dakota, December 4, 1919; Colorado, December 15, 1919; Kentucky, January 6, 1920; Rhode Island, January 6, 1920; Oregon, January 13, 1920; Indiana, January 16, 1920; Wyoming, January 27, 1920; Nevada, February 7, 1920; New Jersey, February 9, 1920; Idaho, February 11, 1920; Arizona, February 12, 1920; New Mexico, February 21, 1920; Oklahoma, February 28, 1920; West Virginia, March 10, 1920; Washington, March 22, 1920; Tennessee, August 18, 1920.

Ratification was completed on August 18, 1920.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Connecticut on September 14, 1920 (and that State reaffirmed on September 21, 1920); Vermont, February 8, 1921; Delaware, March 6, 1923 (after having rejected it on June 2, 1920); Maryland, March 29, 1941 (after having rejected it on February 24, 1920, ratification certified on February 25, 1958); Virginia, February 21, 1952 (after having rejected it on February 12, 1920); Alabama, September 8, 1953 (after having rejected it on September 22, 1919); Florida, May 13, 1969; South Carolina, July 1, 1969 (after having rejected it on January 28, 1920, ratification certified on August 22, 1973); Georgia, February 20, 1970 (after having rejected it on July 24, 1919); Louisiana, June 11, 1970 (after having rejected it on July 1, 1920); North Carolina, May 6, 1971; Mississippi, March 22, 1984 (after having rejected it on March 29, 1920).


AMENDMENT XXI
Passed by Congress March 1, 1932 - Ratified February 6, 1933.

This Amendment, although truly the 21st is currently shown as the 20th because of the unlawful removal of the valid 13th Amendment. In view of the removal of the 13th Amendment this Amendment may have been proposed by an unconstitutional Congress. Congress may have had members who claimed Titles of Nobility and were therefore not Citizens and had no right to hold the office of Representative or Senator.

Section 1.
The terms of the President and the Vice-President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3rd day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

Section 2.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Section 3.
If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice-President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice-President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice-President shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice-President shall have qualified.

Section 4.
The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice- President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

Section 5.
Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article (October 1933).

Section 6.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

The this amendment to the Constitution was proposed to the legislatures of the several states by the Seventy-Second Congress, on the 2d day of March, 1932, and was declared, in a proclamation by the Secretary of State, dated on the 6th day of February, 1933, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 48 States. The dates of ratification were: Virginia, March 4, 1932; New York, March 11, 1932; Mississippi, March 16, 1932; Arkansas, March 17, 1932; Kentucky, March 17, 1932; New Jersey, March 21, 1932; South Carolina, March 25, 1932; Michigan, March 31, 1932; Maine, April 1, 1932; Rhode Island, April 14, 1932; Illinois, April 21, 1932; Louisiana, June 22, 1932; West Virginia, July 30, 1932; Pennsylvania, August 11, 1932; Indiana, August 15, 1932; Texas, September 7, 1932; Alabama, September 13, 1932; California, January 4, 1933; North Carolina, January 5, 1933; North Dakota, January 9, 1933; Minnesota, January 12, 1933; Arizona, January 13, 1933; Montana, January 13, 1933; Nebraska, January 13, 1933; Oklahoma, January 13, 1933; Kansas, January 16, 1933; Oregon, January 16, 1933; Delaware, January 19, 1933; Washington, January 19, 1933; Wyoming, January 19, 1933; Iowa, January 20, 1933; South Dakota, January 20, 1933; Tennessee, January 20, 1933; Idaho, January 21, 1933; New Mexico, January 21, 1933; Georgia, January 23, 1933; Missouri, January 23, 1933; Ohio, January 23, 1933; Utah, January 23, 1933.

Ratification was completed on January 23, 1933.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Massachusetts on January 24, 1933; Wisconsin, January 24, 1933; Colorado, January 24, 1933; Nevada, January 26, 1933; Connecticut, January 27, 1933; New Hampshire, January 31, 1933; Vermont, February 2, 1933; Maryland, March 24, 1933; Florida, April 26, 1933.


Article XXII
Passed by Congress February 20, 1933 - Ratified December 5, 1933.

This Amendment, although truly the 22nd is currently shown as the 21st because of the unlawful removal of the valid 13th Amendment. In view of the removal of the 13th Amendment this Amendment may have been proposed by an unconstitutional Congress. Congress may have had members who claimed Titles of Nobility and were therefore not Citizens and had no right to hold the office of Representative or Senator.

Section 1.
The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

Section 2.

The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

Section 3.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

This amendment to the Constitution was proposed to the several states by the Seventy-Second Congress, on the 20th day of February, 1933, and was declared, in a proclamation by the Secretary of State, dated on the 5th day of December, 1933, to have been ratified by 36 of the 48 States. The dates of ratification were: Michigan, April 10, 1933; Wisconsin, April 25, 1933; Rhode Island, May 8, 1933; Wyoming, May 25, 1933; New Jersey, June 1, 1933; Delaware, June 24, 1933; Indiana, June 26, 1933; Massachusetts, June 26, 1933; New York, June 27, 1933; Illinois, July 10, 1933; Iowa, July.


Amendment XXIII
Passed by Congress March 21, 1947 - Ratified March 1, 1951.

This Amendment, although truly the 23rd is currently shown as the 22nd because of the unlawful removal of the valid 13th Amendment. In view of the removal of the 13th Amendment this Amendment may have been proposed by an unconstitutional Congress. Congress may have had members who claimed Titles of Nobility and were therefore not Citizens and had no right to hold the office of Representative or Senator.

Section 1.
No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

Section 2.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states within seven years from the date of its submission to the states by the Congress.

This amendment was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Eightieth Congress on Mar. 21, 1947 by House Joint Res. No. 27, and was declared by the Administrator of General Services, on Mar. 1, 1951, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 48 States. The dates of ratification were: Maine, March 31, 1947; Michigan, March 31, 1947; Iowa, April 1, 1947; Kansas, April 1, 1947; New Hampshire, April 1, 1947; Delaware, April 2, 1947; Illinois, April 3, 1947; Oregon, April 3, 1947; Colorado, April 12, 1947; California, April 15, 1947; New Jersey, April 15, 1947; Vermont, April 15, 1947; Ohio, April 16, 1947; Wisconsin, April 16, 1947; Pennsylvania, April 29, 1947; Connecticut, May 21, 1947; Missouri, May 22, 1947; Nebraska, May 23, 1947; Virginia, January 28, 1948; Mississippi, February 12, 1948; New York, March 9, 1948; South Dakota, January 21, 1949; North Dakota, February 25, 1949; Louisiana, May 17, 1950; Montana, January 25, 1951; Indiana, January 29, 1951; Idaho, January 30, 1951; New Mexico, February 12, 1951; Wyoming, February 12, 1951; Arkansas, February 15, 1951; Georgia, February 17, 1951; Tennessee, February 20, 1951; Texas, February 22, 1951; Nevada, February 26, 1951; Utah, February 26, 1951; Minnesota, February 27, 1951.

Ratification was completed on February 27, 1951.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by North Carolina on February 28, 1951; South Carolina, March 13, 1951; Maryland, March 14, 1951; Florida, April 16, 1951; Alabama, May 4, 1951. The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by Oklahoma in June 1947, and Massachusetts on June 9, 1949.


Amendment XXIV
Passed by Congress June 17, 1960 - Ratified April 3, 1961.

This Amendment, although truly the 24th is currently shown as the 23rd because of the unlawful removal of the valid 13th Amendment. In view of the removal of the 13th Amendment this Amendment may have been proposed by an unconstitutional Congress. Congress may have had members who claimed Titles of Nobility and were therefore not Citizens and had no right to hold the office of Representative or Senator.

Section 1.
The District constituting the seat of government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a state, but in no event more than the least populous state; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the states, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a state; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

Section 2.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

This amendment was proposed by the Eighty-sixth Congress on June 17, 1960 and was declared by the Administrator of General Services on April 3, 1961, to have been ratified by 38 of the 50 States. The dates of ratification were: Hawaii, June 23, 1960 (and that State made a technical correction to its resolution on June 30, 1960); Massachusetts, August 22, 1960; New Jersey, December 19, 1960; New York, January 17, 1961; California, January 19, 1961; Oregon, January 27, 1961; Maryland, January 30, 1961; Idaho, January 31, 1961; Maine, January 31, 1961; Minnesota, January 31, 1961; New Mexico, February 1, 1961; Nevada, February 2, 1961; Montana, February 6, 1961; South Dakota, February 6, 1961; Colorado, February 8, 1961; Washington, February 9, 1961; West Virginia, February 9, 1961; Alaska, February 10, 1961; Wyoming, February 13, 1961; Delaware, February 20, 1961; Utah, February 21, 1961; Wisconsin, February 21, 1961; Pennsylvania, February 28, 1961; Indiana, March 3, 1961; North Dakota, March 3, 1961; Tennessee, March 6, 1961; Michigan, March 8, 1961; Connecticut, March 9, 1961; Arizona, March 10, 1961; Illinois, March 14, 1961; Nebraska, March 15, 1961; Vermont, March 15, 1961; Iowa, March 16, 1961; Missouri, March 20, 1961; Oklahoma, March 21, 1961; Rhode Island, March 22, 1961; Kansas, March 29, 1961; Ohio, March 29, 1961.

Ratification was completed on March 29, 1961.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by New Hampshire on March 30, 1961 (when that State annulled and then repeated its ratification of March 29, 1961). The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by Arkansas on January 24, 1961.


Amendment XXV
Passed by Congress August 27, 1962 - Ratified February 4, 1964.

This Amendment, although truly the 25th is currently shown as the 24rd because of the unlawful removal of the valid 13th Amendment. In view of the removal of the 13th Amendment this Amendment may have been proposed by an unconstitutional Congress. Congress may have had members who claimed Titles of Nobility and were therefore not Citizens and had no right to hold the office of Representative or Senator.

Section 1.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

Section 2.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

This amendment was proposed by the Eighty-seventh Congress by Senate Joint Resolution No. 29, which was approved by the Senate on Mar. 27, 1962, and by the House of Representatives on Aug. 27, 1962. It was declared by the Administrator of General Services on Feb. 4, 1964, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 38 of the 50 States. This amendment was ratified by the following States: Illinois, November 14, 1962; New Jersey, December 3, 1962; Oregon, January 25, 1963; Montana, January 28, 1963; West Virginia, February 1, 1963; New York, February 4, 1963; Maryland, February 6, 1963; California, February 7, 1963; Alaska, February 11, 1963; Rhode Island, February 14, 1963; Indiana, February 19, 1963; Utah, February 20, 1963; Michigan, February 20, 1963; Colorado, February 21, 1963; Ohio, February 27, 1963; Minnesota, February 27, 1963; New Mexico, March 5, 1963; Hawaii, March 6, 1963; North Dakota, March 7, 1963; Idaho, March 8, 1963; Washington, March 14, 1963; Vermont, March 15, 1963; Nevada, March 19, 1963; Connecticut, March 20, 1963; Tennessee, March 21, 1963; Pennsylvania, March 25, 1963; Wisconsin, March 26, 1963; Kansas, March 28, 1963; Massachusetts, March 28, 1963; Nebraska, April 4, 1963; Florida, April 18, 1963; Iowa, April 24, 1963; Delaware, May 1, 1963; Missouri, May 13, 1963; New Hampshire, June 12, 1963; Kentucky, June 27, 1963; Maine, January 16, 1964; South Dakota, January 23, 1964; Virginia, February 25, 1977.

Ratification was completed on January 23, 1964.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by North Carolina on May 3, 1989. The amendment was rejected by Mississippi (and not subsequently ratified) on December 20, 1962. Certification of Validity Publication of the certifying statement of the Administrator of General Services that the amendment had become valid was made on Feb. 5, 1964, F.R. Doc. 64 091229, 29 F.R. 1715.


Amendment XXVI
Passed by Congress July 6, 1965 - Ratified February 23, 1967.

This Amendment, although truly the 26th is currently shown as the 25th because of the unlawful removal of the valid 13th Amendment. In view of the removal of the 13th Amendment this Amendment may have been proposed by an unconstitutional Congress. Congress may have had members who claimed Titles of Nobility and were therefore not Citizens and had no right to hold the office of Representative or Senator.

Section 1.
In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2.
Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3.
Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4.
Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

This amendment was proposed by the Eighty-ninth Congress by Senate Joint Resolution No. 1, which was approved by the Senate on Feb. 19, 1965, and by the House of Representatives, in amended form, on Apr. 13, 1965. The House of Representatives agreed to a Conference Report on June 30, 1965, and the Senate agreed to the Conference Report on July 6, 1965. It was declared by the Administrator of General Services, on Feb. 23, 1967, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 39 of the 50 States. This amendment was ratified by the following States: Nebraska, July 12, 1965; Wisconsin, July 13, 1965; Oklahoma, July 16, 1965; Massachusetts, August 9, 1965; Pennsylvania, August 18, 1965; Kentucky, September 15, 1965; Arizona, September 22, 1965; Michigan, October 5, 1965; Indiana, October 20, 1965; California, October 21, 1965; Arkansas, November 4, 1965; New Jersey, November 29, 1965; Delaware, December 7, 1965; Utah, January 17, 1966; West Virginia, January 20, 1966; Maine, January 24, 1966; Rhode Island, January 28, 1966; Colorado, February 3, 1966; New Mexico, February 3, 1966; Kansas, February 8, 1966; Vermont, February 10, 1966; Alaska, February 18, 1966; Idaho, March 2, 1966; Hawaii, March 3, 1966; Virginia, March 8, 1966; Mississippi, March 10, 1966; New York, March 14, 1966; Maryland, March 23, 1966; Missouri, March 30, 1966; New Hampshire, June 13, 1966; Louisiana, July 5, 1966; Tennessee, January 12, 1967; Wyoming, January 25, 1967; Washington, January 26, 1967; Iowa, January 26, 1967; Oregon, February 2, 1967; Minnesota, February 10, 1967; Nevada, February 10, 1967.

Ratification was completed on February 10, 1967.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Connecticut, February 14, 1967; Montana, February 15, 1967; South Dakota, March 6, 1967; Ohio, March 7, 1967; Alabama, March 14, 1967; North Carolina, March 22, 1967; Illinois, March 22, 1967; Texas, April 25, 1967; Florida, May 25, 1967.


Amendment XXVII
Passed by Congress March 23, 1971 - Ratified July 5, 1971.

This Amendment, although truly the 27th is currently shown as the 26th because of the unlawful removal of the valid 13th Amendment. In view of the removal of the 13th Amendment this Amendment may have been proposed by an unconstitutional Congress. Congress may have had members who claimed Titles of Nobility and were therefore not Citizens and had no right to hold the office of Representative or Senator.

Section 1.
The right of citizens of the United States, who are 18 years of age or older, to vote, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of age.

Section 2.
The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

This amendment was proposed by the Ninety-second Congress by Senate Joint Resolution No. 7, which was approved by the Senate on Mar. 10, 1971, and by the House of Representatives on Mar. 23, 1971. It was declared by the Administrator of General Services on July 5, 1971, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 39 of the 50 States. This amendment was ratified by the following States: Connecticut, March 23, 1971; Delaware, March 23, 1971; Minnesota, March 23, 1971; Tennessee, March 23, 1971; Washington, March 23, 1971; Hawaii, March 24, 1971; Massachusetts, March 24, 1971; Montana, March 29, 1971; Arkansas, March 30, 1971; Idaho, March 30, 1971; Iowa, March 30, 1971; Nebraska, April 2, 1971; New Jersey, April 3, 1971; Kansas, April 7, 1971; Michigan, April 7, 1971; Alaska, April 8, 1971; Maryland, April 8, 1971; Indiana, April 8, 1971; Maine, April 9, 1971; Vermont, April 16, 1971; Louisiana, April 17, 1971; California, April 19, 1971; Colorado, April 27, 1971; Pennsylvania, April 27, 1971; Texas, April 27, 1971; South Carolina, April 28, 1971; West Virginia, April 28, 1971; New Hampshire, May 13, 1971; Arizona, May 14, 1971; Rhode Island, May 27, 1971; New York, June 2, 1971; Oregon, June 4, 1971; Missouri, June 14, 1971; Wisconsin, June 22, 1971; Illinois, June 29, 1971; Alabama, June 30, 1971; Ohio, June 30, 1971; North Carolina, July 1, 1971; Oklahoma, July 1, 1971.

Ratification was completed on July 1, 1971.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Virginia, July 8, 1971; Wyoming, July 8, 1971; Georgia, October 4, 1971.


Amendment XXVIII
Passed by Congress September 25, 1789 - Ratified May 18, 1992.

This Amendment, although truly the 28th is currently shown as the 27th because of the unlawful removal of the valid 13th Amendment. In view of the removal of the 13th Amendment this Amendment may have been proposed by an unconstitutional Congress. Congress may have had members who claimed Titles of Nobility and were therefore not Citizens and had no right to hold the office of Representative or Senator.

No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives shall take effect until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

This amendment, being the second of twelve articles proposed by the First Congress on Sept. 25, 1789, was declared by the Archivist of the United States on May 18, 1992, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 40 of the 50 States. This amendment was ratified by the following States: Maryland, December 19, 1789; North Carolina, December 22, 1789; South Carolina, January 19, 1790; Delaware, January 28, 1790; Vermont, November 3, 1791; Virginia, December 15, 1791; Ohio, May 6, 1873; Wyoming, March 6, 1978; Maine, April 27, 1983; Colorado, April 22, 1984; South Dakota, February 21, 1985; New Hampshire, March 7, 1985; Arizona, April 3, 1985; Tennessee, May 23, 1985; Oklahoma, July 10, 1985; New Mexico, February 14, 1986; Indiana, February 24, 1986; Utah, February 25, 1986; Arkansas, March 6, 1987; Montana, March 17, 1987; Connecticut, May 13, 1987; Wisconsin, July 15, 1987; Georgia, February 2, 1988; West Virginia, March 10, 1988; Louisiana, July 7, 1988; Iowa, February 9, 1989; Idaho, March 23, 1989; Nevada, April 26, 1989; Alaska, May 6, 1989; Oregon, May 19, 1989; Minnesota, May 22, 1989; Texas, May 25, 1989; Kansas, April 5, 1990; Florida, May 31, 1990; North Dakota, March 25, 1991; Alabama, May 5, 1992; Missouri, May 5, 1992; Michigan, May 7, 1992; New Jersey, May 7, 1992.

Ratification was completed on May 7, 1992.

The amendment was subsequently ratified by Illinois on May 12, 1992.

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